James W. Fourqurean

Department of Biological Sciences and

Southeast Environmental Research Center

Florida International University

11200 SW 8th St, OE 227

Miami, FL 33199

voice (305) 348-4084

fax (305) 348-4096





I am a marine ecologist who specializes in biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean and the community and ecosystem ecology of nearshore marine ecosystems, with an emphasis on seagrasses and mangroves. In my lab, students investigate such topics as carbon flux in coastal systems, competition among primary producers and animals, and plant-animal interactions. I also and the Principal Investigator for FIU’s Medina Aquarius Program











Ph.D. 1992

Ph.D. 1992. University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences

M.S. 1987

University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences

B.A. 1983

University of Virginia, Departments of Biology and Environmental Sciences


Positions held


Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University


Adjunct Professor, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia


Institute of Advanced Studies Professor-at-Large, University of Western Australia


Director, Marine Education and Research Center in the Florida Keys


Visiting Research Fellow, Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia


Chair, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University


Visiting Professor, Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats, CSIC-Universitat des Illes Balears, Esporles, Mallorca, Spain


Associate Professor


Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences and Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University


Postdoctoral research associate, San Francisco State University. J.T. Hollibaugh, advisor


Graduate research assistant, University of Virginia.  J.C. Zieman, advisor.


Research biologist, National Audubon Society


Teaching Experience

At FIU:    

Undergraduate courses: Ecology, Ecology Lab, Freshwater Ecology, Undergraduate Seminar

Graduate Courses: Advanced Ecology - Communities and Ecosystems, Ecology of Marine Vascular Plants, Techniques in Seagrass Ecology, Techniques in Plant Nutrient Analysis, Introduction to Biological Research.

Teaching abroad:

In Mexico: Advanced Marine Botany, Marine Protected Areas (UNAM, Puerto Morelos)

In Panama: Tropical Marine Ecosystems (OTS, Bocas del Toro)

In Bermuda: Ecology and management of seagrass ecosystems

At SFSU: Graduate courses: Advances in Biogeochemistry

Awards and Honors


Florida International University Presidential Excellence Award finalist in recognition of commitment to strategic, operational, and service excellence


Australian National Network in Marine Sciences Visiting Scholar fellowship


Gledden Visiting Senior Fellowship, University of Western Australia


Florida International University Award for Excellence in Faculty Scholarship


Florida International University Foundation Excellence in Research Award


Florida International University Award for Extraordinary Performance in Attracting Contract and Grant Resources


Florida International University Award for Extraordinary Performance in Attracting Contract and Grant Resources

Publications (peer reviewed, *=graduate student, **=undergraduate student)

117. McDonald, A.M.*, P. Prado, K.L. Heck, Jr, J.W. Fourqurean, T.A. Frankovich, K.H. Dunton and J. Cebrian. In press. Seagrass growth, reproductive, and morphological plasticity across environmental gradients over a large spatial scale. Aquatic Botany. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.07.007

116. Bessey, C.*, M.R. Heithaus, J.W. Fourqurean, K.R. Gastrich, and D.A. Burkholder. 2016. The importance of teleost grazers on seagrass composition in a subtropical ecosystem with abundant populations of megagrazers and predators. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 553:81-92. DOI: 10.3354/meps11790

115. Howard, J.L.*, A. Perez**, C.C. Lopes** and J.W. Fourqurean. 2016. Fertilization changes seagrass community structure but not blue carbon storage: results from a 30-year field experiment.  Estuaries and Coasts 39:1422-1434. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-016-0083-1

114. Dewsbury, B.M.*, M. Bhat and J.W. Fourqurean. 2016. A review of economic valuations of seagrass ecosystems. Ecosystem Services 18:68-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.02.010

113. Armitage, A.R and J.W. Fourqurean. 2016. Carbon storage in seagrass soils: long-term nutrient history exceeds the effects of near-term nutrient enrichment. Biogeosciences 13:313-321. DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-313-2016

112. Catano, L.*, M. Rojas, R. Malossi, J. Peters, M. Heithaus, J.W. Fourqurean, D. Burkepile. 2016. Reefscapes of fear: predation risk and reef heterogeneity interact to shape herbivore foraging behavior. Journal of Animal Ecology 85:146-156. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12440

111. Alongi, D.M., D. Murdiyarso, J.W. Fourqurean, J.B. Kauffman, A. Hutahaean, S. Crooks, C.E. Lovelock, J. Howard, D. Herr, M. Fortes, E. Pidgeon, and T. Wagey. 2016. Indonesia’s blue carbon: A globally significant and vulnerable sink for seagrass and mangrove carbon. Wetlands Ecology and Management 24:3-13. DOI: 10.1007/s11273-015-9446-y

110. Bourque, A.S.*, J.W. Fourqurean and W.J. Kenworthy. 2015. The impacts of physical disturbance on ecosystem structure in subtropical seagrass meadows. Marine Ecology Progress Series 540:27-41. DOI: 10.3354/meps11505

109. Atwood, T.B., R.M. Connolly, E.G. Ritchie, C.E. Lovelock, M.R. Heithaus, G.C. Hays, J.W. Fourqurean and P.I. Macreadie.  2015. Predators help protect carbon stocks in blue carbon ecosystems. Nature Climate Change 5:1038-1045 DOI: 10.1039/NCLIMATE2763

108. Fourqurean, J.W., S.A. Manuel, K.A. Coates, W.J. Kenworthy and J.N. Boyer. 2015. Water quality, isoscapes and stoichioscapes of seagrasses indicate general P limitation and unique N cycling in shallow water benthos of Bermuda. Biogeosciences 12:6235-6249, DOI: 10.5194/bg-12-6235-2015

107. Gaiser, E.E., E.P. Anderson, E. Castañeda-Moya, L. Collado-Vides, J.W. Fourqurean, M.R. Heithaus, R. Jaffé, D. Lagomasino, N.J. Oehm, R.M. Price, V.H. Rivera-Monroy, R. Roy Chowdhury, T.G. Troxler. 2015. New perspectives on an iconic landscape from comparative international long-term ecological research. Ecosphere 6(10):181. DOI: 10.1890/ES14-00388.1

106. Mazarrasa, I.*, N. Marbà, C.E. Lovelock, O. Serrano, P. Lavery, J.W. Fourqurean, H. Kennedy, M.A. Mateo, D. Krause-Jensen, A.D.L. Steven and C.M. Duarte. 2015. Seagrass meadows as globally significant carbonate reservoir. Biogeosciences 12:4993-5003. DOI: 10.5194/bg-12-4993-2015

105. Dewsbury, B.M.*, S. Koptur and J.W. Fourqurean. 2015. Ecosystem responses to prescribed fire along a chronosequence in a subtropical pine rockland habitat. Caribbean Naturalist 24:1-12.

104. Bourque, A.S.*, R. Vega-Thurber and J.W. Fourqurean. 2015. Microbial community structure and dynamics in restored subtropical seagrass soils. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 74:43-57. DOI: 10.3354/ame01725.

103. Campbell, J.E.*, E.A. Lacey*, R.A. Decker, S. Crooks and J.W. Fourqurean. 2015. Carbon storage in seagrass beds of the Arabian Gulf. Estuaries and Coasts 38:242–251. DOI 10.1007/s12237-014-9802-9

102. Thomson, J.A., D.A. Burkholder, M.R. Heithaus, J.W. Fourqurean, M.W. Fraser*, J. Statton* and G.A. Kendrick. 2015. Extreme temperatures, foundation species and abrupt shifts in ecosystems. Global Change Biology 21:1463-1474. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12694

101. Lacey, E.A.*, L. Collado-Vides and J.W. Fourqurean. 2014. Morphological and physiological responses of seagrasses to grazers and their role as patch abandonment cues. Revista de Biología Tropical 62(4):1535-1548.

100. Bourque, A.S.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2014. Effects of common seagrass restoration methods on ecosystem structure in subtropical seagrass meadows. Marine Environmental Research 97:67-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2014.03.001.

99. Heithaus, M.R., T.  Alcovero, R. Arthur, D.A. Burkholder, K.A. Coates, M.J.A. Christianen, N. Kelkar, S.A. Manuel, A.J. Wirsing, W.J, Kenworthy and J.W. Fourqurean. 2014. Seagrasses in the age of sea turtle conservation and shark overfishing. Frontiers in Marine Science 1:28. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00028.

98. Campbell, J.E.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2014. Ocean acidification outweighs nutrient effects in structuring seagrass epiphyte communities. Journal of Ecology 102(3):730-737. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12233

97. Troxler, T.G., E. Gaiser, J. Barr, J.D. Fuentes, R. Jaffe, D.L. Childers, L. Collado-Vides, V.H. Rivera-Monroy, E. Castaneda-Moya, W. Anderson, R. Chambers, M.L. Chen, C. Coronado-Molina, S.E. Davis, V. Engel, C. Fitz, J. Fourqurean, T. Frankovich, J. Kominoski, C. Madden, S.L. Malone, S.F. Oberbauer, P. Olivas, J. Richards, C. Saunders, J. Schedlbauer, L.J. Scinto, F. Sklar, T. Smith, J.M. Smoak, G. Starr, R.R. Twilley, and K. Whelan. 2013. Integrated carbon budget models for the Everglades terrestrial-oceanic gradient: Current Status and Needs for Inter-Site Comparisons. Oceanography 26:98-107. DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2013.51.

96. Manuel, S.M., K.A. Coates, W.J. Kenworthy and J.W. Fourqurean. 2013. Tropical species at the northern limit of their range: composition and distribution in Bermuda's benthic habitats in relation to depth and light availability. Marine Environmental Research 89:63-75. DOI:10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.05.003

95. Bourque, A.S.*, and J.W. Fourqurean. 2013. Variability in herbivory in subtropical seagrass ecosystems and implications for seagrass transplanting. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 445:29-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2013.03.014

94. Burkholder, D.A.*, M.R. Heithaus, J.W. Fourqurean, A. Wirsing and L.M. Dill. 2013. Patterns of top-down control of a seagrass ecosystem: could a roving top predator induce a behavior-mediated trophic cascade? Journal of Animal Ecology 82(6): 1192–1202. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12097

93. Campbell, J.E.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2013. Effects of in situ CO2 enrichment on the structural and chemical characteristics of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Marine Biology 160(6):1465-1475. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-013-2199-3

92. Campbell, J.E.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2013. Mechanisms of bicarbonate use influence photosynthetic CO2 sensitivity of tropical seagrasses. Limnology and Oceanography 58(3): 839-848. DOI:10.4319/lo.2013.58.3.0000

91. Lacey, E.A.*, J.W. Fourqurean and L. Collado-Vides. 2013. Increased algal dominance despite presence of Diadema antillarum populations on a Caribbean coral reef.  Bulletin of Marine Science 89(2):603-620. DOI:10.5343/bms.2012.1015.

90. Burkholder, D.A.*, J.W. Fourqurean and M.R. Heithaus. 2013. Spatial pattern in stoichiometry indicates both N-limited and P-limited regions of an iconic P-limited subtropical bay. Marine Ecology – Progress Series 472:101-115. DOI: 10.3354/meps10042.

89. Baggett, L.P.*, K.L. Heck, Jr., T.A. Frankovich, A.R. Armitage and J.W. Fourqurean. 2013.  Stoichiometry, growth, and fecundity responses to nutrient enrichment by invertebrate grazers in sub-tropical turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) meadows. Marine Biology 160:169-180. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-012-2075-6.

88. Fourqurean, J.W., G.A. Kendrick, L.S. Collins, R.M. Chambers and M.A. Vanderklift. 2012. Carbon and nutrient storage in subtropical seagrass meadows: examples from Florida Bay and Shark Bay. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:967-983. DOI: 10.1071/MF12101

87. Kendrick G.A., J.W. Fourqurean, M.W. Fraser, M.R. Heithaus, G. Jackson, K, Friedman and D. Hallac. 2012. Science behind management of Shark Bay and Florida Bay, two P-limited subtropical systems with different climatology and human pressures. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:941-951. DOI: 10.1071/MF12280.

86. Fraser, M.W.*, G.A. Kendrick, P.F. Grierson, J.W. Fourqurean, M.A. Vanderklift and D.I. Walker.  2012. Nutrient status of seagrasses cannot be inferred from system-scale distribution of phosphorus in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:1015-1026. DOI: 10.1071/MF12026

85. Frankovich, T.A., J. Barr, D. Morrison and J.W. Fourqurean. 2012. Differential importance of water quality parameters and temporal patterns of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) cover in adjacent sub-estuaries distinguished by alternate regimes of phytoplankton and SAV dominance. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:1005-1014. DOI: 10.1071/MF12036

84. Burkholder, D.A.*, M.R. Heithaus, and J.W. Fourqurean. 2012.  Feeding preferences of herbivores in a relatively pristine subtropical seagrass ecosystem. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:1051-1058. DOI: 10.1071/MF12029

83. Price, R.M., G. Skrzypek, P.F. Grierson, P.K. Swart, and J.W. Fourqurean. 2012. The use of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in identifying water exchange of in two hypersaline estuaries with different hydrologic regimes. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:952-966. DOI: 10.1071/MF12042

82. Cawley, K.M.*, Y. Ding*, J.W. Fourqurean and R. Jaffé. 2012. Characterizing the sources and fate of dissolved organic matter in Shark Bay, Australia: A preliminary study using optical properties and stable carbon isotopes. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:1098-1107. DOI: 10.1071/MF12028.

81. Belicka, L.L., D. Burkholder, J.W. Fourqurean, M.R. Heithaus, S.A. Macko and R. Jaffé. 2012. Stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers of seagrass, epiphytic, and algal organic matter to consumers in a nearly pristine seagrass ecosystem. Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 63:1085-1097. DOI: 10.1071/MF12027

80. Pendleton, L., D.C. Donato, B.C. Murray, S. Crooks, W.A. Jenkins, S. Sifleet, C. Craft, J. W. Fourqurean, B. Kauffman, N. Marbà, P. Megonigal, E. Pidgeon, V. Bilbao-Bastidam, R. Ullman,  and D. Gordon. 2012. Estimating global "blue carbon" emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PLoS ONE 7(9):e43542. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043542

79. Fourqurean, J.W., Duarte, C.M., Kennedy, H., Marbà, N., Holmer, M., Mateo, M.A., Apostolaki, E.T., Kendrick, G.A., Krause-Jensen, D., McGlathery, K.J., and O. Serrano. 2012. Seagrass ecosystems as a globally significant carbon stock. Nature Geoscience 5:505–509. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1477

78. Campbell, J.E.*, L.A. Yarbro and J.W. Fourqurean. 2012. Negative relationships between the nutrient and carbohydrate content of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.  Aquatic Botany 99:56-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.02.002

77. Hitchcock, G.L., J.W. Fourqurean, J. Drake, R.N. Mead and C.A. Heil. 2012. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters. Harmful Algae 13:89-94 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2011.10.008

76. Burkholder, D.A.*, M.R. Heithaus, J.A. Thomson and J.W. Fourqurean. 2011. Diversity in trophic interactions of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) on a relatively pristine coastal seagrass foraging ground.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 439: 277–293. DOI: 10.3354/meps09313

75. Armitage, A.R., T.A. Frankovich and J.W. Fourqurean. 2011. Long term effects of adding nutrients to an oligotrophic coastal environment. Ecosystems 14:430–444. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-011-9421-2

74. Herbert, D.A., W.B. Perry, B.J. Cosby and J.W. Fourqurean. 2011. Projected reorganization of Florida Bay seagrass communities in response to increased freshwater delivery from the Everglades. Estuaries and Coasts 34:973-992. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-011-9388-4

73. Frankovich, T.A., D. Morrison and J.W. Fourqurean. 2011. Benthic macrophyte distribution and abundance in estuarine mangrove lakes: Relationships to environmental variables. Estuaries and Coasts 34(1):20-31. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-010-9279-0                

72. Campbell, J.E.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2011. Novel methodology for in situ carbon dioxide enrichment of benthic ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 9:97–109. DOI: 10:4319/lom.2011.9.97

71. Duarte, C.M., N. Marbà, E. Gacia, J.W. Fourqurean, J. Beggins, C. Barrón, E.T. Apostolaki. 2010. Seagrass community metabolism: assessing the carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24: GB4032. DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003793

70. Kennedy, H., J. Beggins, C. M. Duarte, J.W. Fourqurean, M. Holmer, N. Marbà, and J. J. Middelburg. 2010. Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: isotopic constraints.  Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24: GB4026. DOI: 10.1029/2010GB003848

69. Fourqurean, J.W., S. Manuel, K.A. Coates, W.J. Kenworthy and S.R. Smith. 2010. Effects of excluding sea turtle herbivores from a seagrass bed: overgrazing may have led to loss of seagrass meadows in Bermuda. Marine Ecology Progress Series 419:223-232. DOI: 10.3354/meps08853

68. Fourqurean, J.W., M.F. Muth and J.N. Boyer. 2010. Epiphyte loads on seagrasses and microphytobenthos abundance are not reliable indicators of nutrient availability in coastal ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:971-983.  DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.003

67. Dewsbury, B.M.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2010. Artificial reefs concentrate nutrients and alter benthic community structure in an oligotrophic, subtropical estuary. Bulletin of Marine Science 86(4): 813-828. DOI: 10.5343/bms.2009.1066

66. Baggett, L.P.*, K.L. Heck, Jr., T.A. Frankovich, A.R. Armitage and J.W. Fourqurean. 2010. Nutrient enrichment, grazer identity and their effects on epiphytic algal assemblages: field experiments in sub-tropical turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) meadows.  Marine Ecology - Progress Series 406:33-45. DOI: 10.3354/meps08533

65. Fourqurean, J.W., T.J Smith III, J. Possley, T. M. Collins, D. Lee and S. Namoff. 2010. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of south Florida. Biological Invasions 12:2509-2522. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-009-9660-8          

64. Armitage, A.R. and J.W. Fourqurean. 2009. Stable isotopes reveal complex changes in trophic relationships following nutrient addition in a coastal marine ecosystem.  Estuaries and Coasts 32:1152–1164. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-009-9219-z

63. Waycott, M., C.M. Duarte, T.J.B. Carruthers, R.J. Orth, W.C. Dennison, S. Olyarnik, A. Calladine, J.W. Fourqurean, K.L. Heck, Jr., A.R. Hughes, G. Kendrick, W.J. Kenworthy, F.T. Short and S.L. Williams. 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems.  Proceedings of the National Academies of Science USA 106(3):12377-12381.  DOI: 10.1073 pnas.0905620106

62. Campbell, J.E.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2009. Interspecific variation in the elemental and stable isotopic content of seagrasses in South Florida. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 387:109-123.  DOI: 10.3354/meps08093

61. Frankovich, T.A., A.R. Armitage, A.H. Wachnicka, E.E. Gaiser and J.W. Fourqurean.  2009. Nutrient effects on seagrass epiphyte community structure in Florida Bay.  Journal of Phycology 45:1010-1020. DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00745.x

60. Madden, C.J., D.T. Rudnick, A.A. McDonald, K.M. Cunniff, J.W. Fourqurean. 2009. Ecological indicators for assessing and communicating seagrass status and trends in Florida Bay. Ecological Indicators 9S:S68-S82. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.02.004

59. Herbert, D.A. and J.W. Fourqurean. 2009. Phosphorus availability and salinity control productivity and demography of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 32(1):188-201. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-008-9116-x

58. Fourqurean, J.W., C.M. Duarte, M.D. Kershaw and S.T. Threlkeld.  2008. Estuaries and Coasts as an outlet for research in coastal ecosystems: a bibliometric study.  Estuaries and Coasts 31(3):469-476. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-008-9046-7 (Invited editorial)

57. Herbert, D.A. and J.W. Fourqurean.  2008.  Ecosystem structure and function still altered two decades after short-term fertilization of a seagrass meadow.  Ecosystems 11: 688–700. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-008-9151-2

56. Ruiz-Halpern, S.*, S.A. Macko and J.W. Fourqurean. 2008. The effects of manipulation of sedimentary iron and organic matter on sediment biogeochemistry and seagrasses in a subtropical carbonate environment. Biogeochemistry 87:113-126. DOI: 10.1007/s10533-007-9162-7

55. Fourqurean, J.W., N. Marbà, C.M. Duarte, E. Diaz-Almela*, and S. Ruiz-Halpern*, 2007. Spatial and temporal variation in the elemental and stable isotopic content of the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa from the Illes Balears, Spain. Marine Biology 151:219-232. DOI: 10.1007/s00227-006-0473-3

54. Heithaus, M.R., A. Frid, A.J. Wirsing, L.M. Dill, J.W. Fourqurean, D. Burkholder*, J. Thomson and L. Bejder. 2007. State-dependent risk-taking by green sea turtles mediates top-down effects of tiger shark intimidation in a marine ecosystem.  Journal of Animal Ecology 76(5):837-844.


53. Collado-Vides, L., V.G. Caccia, J.N. Boyer and J.W. Fourqurean. 2007. Distribution and trends in macroalgal components of tropical seagrass communities in relation to water quality.  Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 73:680-694; DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.03.009

52. Murdoch, T.J.T. , A.F. Glasspool, M. Outerbridge, J. Ward, S. Manuel, J. Gray, A. Nash, K. A. Coates,  J. Pitt, J.W. Fourqurean, P.A. Barnes, M. Vierros., K. Holzer, and  S.R. Smith. 2007. Large-scale decline of offshore seagrass meadows in Bermuda.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 339:123-130. DOI: 10.3354/meps339123

51. Peterson, B.J., C.M. Chester, F.J. Jochem and J.W. Fourqurean. 2006. Potential role of the sponge community in controlling phytoplankton blooms in Florida Bay.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 328:93-103. DOI: 10.3354/meps328093

50. Orth, R.J., T.J.B. Carruthers, W.C. Dennison, C.M. Duarte, J.W. Fourqurean, K.L. Heck, Jr., R. Hughes, G. Kendrick, W.J. Kenworthy, S. Olyarnik, F.T. Short, M. Waycott and  S.L. Williams.  2006. A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems.  BioScience 56(12):987-996. DOI: 10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[987:AGCFSE]2.0.CO;2

49. Armitage, A.R and J.W. Fourqurean. 2006. The short-term influence of herbivory near patch reefs varies between seagrass species.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 339:65-74; DOI:10.1016/j.jembe.2006.07.013                           

48. Johnson, M.W.*, K.L. Heck, Jr., J.W. Fourqurean.  2006.  Nutrient content of seagrasses and epiphytes in the northern Gulf of Mexico: evidence of phosphorus and nitrogen limitation.  Aquatic Botany 85(2):103-111; DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.02.003

47. Price, R.M., P.K. Swart and J.W. Fourqurean.  2006.  Coastal groundwater discharge – an additional source of phosphorus for the oligotrophic wetlands of the Everglades. Hydrobiologia 569:23-36. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-006-0120-5

46. Gil, M.**, A.R. Armitage, and J.W. Fourqurean. 2006. Nutrients increase epifaunal abundance and shift species composition in a subtropical seagrass bed. Hydrobiologia 569:437-447; DOI: 10.1007/s10750-006-01747-7

45. Armitage, A.R., T.A. Frankovich and J.W. Fourqurean.  2006. Variable responses within epiphytic and benthic microalgal communities to nutrient enrichment. Hydrobiologia 569:423-435; DOI: 10.1007/s10750-006-0146-8

44. Carruthers, T.J.B., P.A.G. Barnes, G.E. Jacome and J.W. Fourqurean. 2005. Lagoon scale processes in a coastally influenced Caribbean system: implications for the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Caribbean Journal of Science 41(3):441-455

43. Fourqurean, J.W. S.P. Escorcia, W.T. Anderson and J.C. Zieman.  2005.  Spatial and seasonal variability in elemental content, δ13C and δ15N of Thalassia testudinum from south Florida.  Estuaries 28(3):447-461. DOI: 10.1007/BF02693926

42. Armitage, A.R., Frankovich, T.A., Heck, K.L. Jr., Fourqurean, J.W. 2005. Complexity in the response of benthic primary producers within a seagrass community to nutrient enrichment. Estuaries 28(3):422-434. DOI: 10.1007/BF02693924

41. Romero, L.M.*, T.J. Smith, III.,and  J.W. Fourqurean. 2005.  Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a South Florida mangrove forest.  Journal of Ecology 93(3):618-631; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2005.00970.x               

40. Collado-Vides, L., L.M. Rutten and J.W. Fourqurean. 2005.  Spatiotemporal variation of the abundance of calcareous green macroalgae in the Florida Keys:  A study of synchrony within a macroalgal functional-form group. Journal of Phycology 41(4):742-752; DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00099.x

39. Borum, J., O. Pedersen, T. M. Greve, T. A. Frankovich, J. C. Zieman, J. W. Fourqurean and C. J. Madden. 2005. The potential role of plant oxygen and sulphide dynamics in die-off events of the tropical seagrass, Thalassia testudinum. Journal of Ecology 93(1)148-158; DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2004.00943.x

38. Fourqurean, J. W. and L. M. Rutten*. 2004. The impact of Hurricane Georges on soft-bottom, backreef communities: site- and species-specific effects in south Florida seagrass beds.  Bulletin of Marine Science 75(2):239-257.

37. Ferdie, M.* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2004.  Responses of seagrass communities to fertilization along a gradient of relative availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in a carbonate environment.  Limnology and Oceanography 49(6):2082-2094.

36. Zieman, J.C., J.W. Fourqurean and T.A. Frankovich.  2004.  Reply to B.E. Lapointe and P.J. Barile (2004). Comment on J.C. Zieman, J.W. Fourqurean and T.A. Frankovich, 1999. Seagrass die-off in Florida Bay: Long-term trends in abundance and growth of turtlegrass, Thalassia testudinum.  Estuaries 27(1)165-172.

35. Fourqurean, J.W. and J.E. Schrlau**.  2003.  Changes in nutrient content and stable isotope ratios of C and N during decomposition of seagrasses and mangrove leaves along a nutrient availability gradient in Florida Bay.  Chemistry and Ecology 19(5):373-390. DOI: 10.1080/02757540310001609370

34. Fourqurean, J.W., N. Marbà and C.M. Duarte.  2003. Elucidating seagrass population dynamics:  theory, constraints and practice.  Limnology and Oceanography 48(5):2070-2074.

33. Fourqurean, J.W., J.N. Boyer, M.J. Durako, L.N. Hefty, and B.J. Peterson. 2003. Forecasting the response of seagrass distribution to changing water quality: statistical models from monitoring data. Ecological Applications 13(2): 474–489. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0474:FROSDT]2.0.CO;2

32. Anderson, W.T. and J.W. Fourqurean.  2003.  Intra- and interannual variability in seagrass carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from south Florida, a preliminary study.  Organic Geochemistry 34(2):185-194. DOI: 10.1016/S0146-6380(02)00161-4

31. Peterson, B.J., C. D. Rose*, L.M. Rutten* and J.W. Fourqurean. 2002. Disturbance and recovery following catastrophic grazing: studies of a successional chronosequence in a seagrass bed.  Oikos 97:361-370. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.970306.x

30. Fourqurean, J. W. and J. C. Zieman.  2002.  Nutrient content of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum reveals regional patterns of relative availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Florida Keys USA.   Biogeochemistry 61:229-245. DOI: 10.1023/A:1020293503405

29. Fourqurean, J.W. and Y. Cai. 2001.  Arsenic and phosphorus in seagrass leaves from the Gulf of Mexico.  Aquatic Botany 71:247-258. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3770(01)00193-0

28. Peterson, B.J. and J.W. Fourqurean.  2001.  Large-scale patterns in seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) demographics in south Florida.  Limnology and Oceanography 46(5):1077-1090.

27. Chambers, R.M., J. W. Fourqurean, S.A. Macko and R. Hoppenot**.  2001.  Biogeochemical effects of iron availability on primary producers in a shallow marine carbonate environment.  Limnology and Oceanography 46(6):1278-1286.

26. Fourqurean, J.W., A. Willsie, C.D. Rose* and L.M. Rutten*.  2001.  Spatial and temporal pattern in seagrass community composition and productivity in south Florida.  Marine Biology 138:341-354. DOI: 10.1007/s002270000448

25. Davis, B.C.* and J.W. Fourqurean.  2001.  Competition between the tropical alga, Halimeda incrassata, and the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum.  Aquatic Botany 71(3):217-232. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3770(01)00179-6

24. Cai, Y., M. Georgiadis** and J.W. Fourqurean.  2000.  Determination of arsenic in seagrass using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  Spectrochimica Acta, Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy 55:1411-1422. DOI: 10.1016/S0584-8547(00)00247-0

23. Nuttle, W.K., J.W. Fourqurean, B.J. Cosby, J.C. Zieman, and M.B. Robblee.  2000. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay.  Water Resources Research 36(7):1805-1822. DOI: 10.1029/1999WR900352

22. Fourqurean, J.W. and M. B. Robblee. 1999.  Florida Bay: a history of recent ecological changes. Estuaries 22(2B):345-357. DOI: 10.2307/1353203     

21. Corbett, D. R.*, J. Chanton, W. Burnett, K. Dillon, C. Rutkowski and J.W. Fourqurean.  1999. Patterns of groundwater discharge into Florida Bay.  Limnology and Oceanography 44(4):1045-1055.

20. Rose, C.D.*, W.C. Sharp, W.J. Kenworthy, J.H. Hunt, W.G. Lyons, E.J. Prager, J.F. Valentine, M.O. Hall, P. Whitfield, and J.W. Fourqurean. 1999.  Sea urchin overgrazing of a large seagrass bed in outer Florida Bay.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 190:211-222. DOI: 10.3354/meps190211

 19. Zieman, J.C., J.W. Fourqurean and T.A. Frankovich.  1999.  Seagrass dieoff in Florida Bay: long term trends in abundance and productivity of turtlegrass, Thalassia testudinum.  Estuaries 22(2B):460-470. DOI: 10.2307/1353211

18. Boyer, J.N., J.W. Fourqurean and R.D. Jones. 1999.  Temporal trends in water chemistry of Florida Bay (1989-1997).  Estuaries 22(2B):417-430. DOI: 10.2307/1353208

17. Hall, M.O., M.D. Durako, J.W. Fourqurean and J.C. Zieman. 1999.  Decadal scale changes in seagrass distribution and abundance in Florida Bay. Estuaries 22(2B):445-459. DOI: 10.2307/1353210

16. Frankovich, T.A. and J.W. Fourqurean.  1997.  Seagrass epiphyte loads along a nutrient availability gradient, Florida Bay, FL, USA.  Marine Ecology - Progress Series 159:37-50. DOI: 10.3354/meps159037

15. Fourqurean, J.W., T.O. Moore, B. Fry, and J.T. Hollibaugh.  1997. Spatial and temporal variation in C:N:P ratios, δ15N, and δ13C of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) as indicators of ecosystem processes, Tomales Bay, CA, USA.  Marine Ecology - Progress Series 157:147-157. DOI: 10.3354/meps157147

14. Boyer, J.N., J.W. Fourqurean, and R.D. Jones.  1997.  Spatial trends in water chemistry of Florida Bay and Whitewater Bay: Zones of similar influence.  Estuaries 20(4)743-758. DOI: 10.2307/1352248

13. Fourqurean, J.W., K.L. Webb, J.T. Hollibaugh and S.V. Smith.  1997.  Contributions of the plankton community to ecosystem respiration, Tomales Bay, California.  Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 44:493-505. DOI: 10.1006/ecss.1996.0130

12. Chambers, R.M., J.W. Fourqurean, J.T. Hollibaugh and S.M. Vink.  1995.  Importance of terrestrially-derived, particulate phosphorus to P dynamics in a west coast estuary. Estuaries. 18(3):518-526. DOI: 10.2307/1352369

11. Fourqurean, J.W., G.V.N. Powell, W.J. Kenworthy and J.C. Zieman.  1995.  The effects of long-term manipulation of nutrient supply on competition between the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum and Halodule wrightii in Florida Bay.  Oikos 72:349-358. DOI: 10.2307/3546120

10. Zieman, J.C., R. Davis, J.W. Fourqurean and M.B. Robblee. 1994. The role of climate in the Florida Bay seagrass dieoff.  Bulletin of Marine Science 54(3):1088.

9. Fourqurean, J.W., R.D. Jones and J.C. Zieman.  1993.  Processes influencing water column nutrient characteristics and phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton biomass in Florida Bay, FL, USA: Inferences from spatial distributions.  Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.  36:295-314. DOI: 10.1006/ecss.1993.1018

8. Fourqurean, J.W., J.C. Zieman and G.V.N. Powell.  1992.  Relationships between porewater nutrients and seagrasses in a subtropical carbonate environment.  Marine Biology 114:57-65.

7. Fourqurean, J.W., J.C. Zieman and G.V.N. Powell.  1992.  Phosphorus limitation of primary production in Florida Bay: evidence from the C:N:P ratios of the dominant seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Limnology and Oceanography 37(1):162-171

6. Chambers, R.M. and J.W. Fourqurean.  1991.  Alternative criteria for assessing nutrient limitation of a wetland macrophyte (Peltandra virginica (L.)) Kunth.  Aquatic Botany 40:305-320. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3770(91)90077-I

5. Fourqurean, J.W. and J.C. Zieman.  1991.  Photosynthesis, respiration and the whole plant carbon budget of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum.  Marine Ecology - Progress Series 69(1-2):161-170.  DOI: 10.3354/meps069161

4. Powell, G.V.N, J.W. Fourqurean, W.J. Kenworthy and J.C. Zieman.  1991.  Bird colonies cause seagrass enrichment in a subtropical estuary: observational and experimental evidence.  Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 32(6):567-579. DOI: 10.1016/0272-7714(91)90075-M

3. Robblee, M.B., T.R. Barber, P.R. Carlson, M.J. Durako, J.W. Fourqurean, L.K. Muehlstein, D. Porter, L.A. Yarbro, R.T. Zieman and J.C. Zieman.  1991.  Mass mortality of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum in Florida Bay (USA).  Marine Ecology - Progress Series 71:297-299. DOI: 10.3354/meps071297

2. Powell, G.V.N., W.J. Kenworthy and J.W. Fourqurean.  1989.  Experimental evidence for nutrient limitation of seagrass growth in a tropical estuary with restricted circulation.  Bulletin of Marine Science 44(1):324-340.

1. Zieman, J.C., J.W. Fourqurean and R.L. Iverson.  1989.  Distribution, abundance and productivity of seagrasses and macroalgae in Florida Bay.  Bulletin of Marine Science 44(1):292-311.

Book Chapters:                                   

8. Nowicki, R.J.*, J.W. Fourqurean and M.R. Heithaus. In press. The role of consumers in structuring seagrass communtiies: direct and indirect mechanisms. In: Larkum, A.W.D. and G. Kendrick (eds) Biology of Seagrasses: an Australian perspective.

7. Fourqurean, J.W., B. Johnson, J.B. Kauffman, H. Kennedy, C. Lovelock, N. Saintilan, D.M. Alongi,  M. Cifuentes, M. Copertino, S. Crooks, C. Duarte, M. Fortes, J. Howard, A. Hutahaean, J. Kairo, N. Marbà, J. Morris, D. Murdiyarso, E. Pidgeon, P. Ralph, O. Serrano. 2014. Field Sampling of Vegetative Carbon Pools in Coastal Ecosystems. Pp. 67-108 in Howard, J., S. Hoyt, K. Isensee, E. Pidgeon and M. Telszewski, eds. Coastal Blue Carbon: methods for assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Arlington, Virginia, USA. 181 pp.

6. Fourqurean, J.W., B. Johnson, J.B. Kauffman, H. Kennedy, C. Lovelock, D.M. Alongi, M. Cifuentes, M. Copertino, S. Crooks, C. Duarte, M. Fortes, J. Howard, A. Hutahaean, J. Kairo, N. Marbà, J. Morris, D. Murdiyarso, E. Pidgeon, P. Ralph, N. Saintilan, O. Serrano. 2014. Field Sampling of Soil Carbon Pools in Coastal Ecosystems. Pp. 39-66 in Howard, J., S. Hoyt, K. Isensee, E. Pidgeon and M. Telszewski, eds. Coastal Blue Carbon: methods for assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Arlington, Virginia, USA. 181 pp.

5. Fourqurean, J.W., B. Johnson, J.B. Kauffman, H. Kennedy, I. Emmer, J. Howard, E. Pidgeon, O. Serrano. 2014. Conceptualizing the Project and Developing a Field Measurement Plan. Pp 25-38 in Howard, J., S. Hoyt, K. Isensee, E. Pidgeon and M. Telszewski, eds. Coastal Blue Carbon: methods for assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Arlington, Virginia, USA. 181 pp. 4. Coates, K.A., J.W. Fourqurean, W.J. Kenworthy, A. Logan, S.A. Manuel and S.R Smith. 2013. Introduction to Bermuda geology, oceanography and climate. Pp 115-133 In: Sheppard, C. (Ed) Coral Reefs of the World – Volume 4: Coral Reefs of the UK overseas territories. Springer, Dordrecht.  336pp. ISBN: 978-94-007-5964-0 

3. Duarte, C.M., J.W. Fourqurean, D. Krause-Jensen and B. Olesen.  2005.  Dynamics of seagrass stability and change.  Pp. 271-294 In Larkum, A.W.D., Orth, R.J., and C.M. Duarte.  Seagrasses: Biology, ecology and conservation. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-2983-7_11

2. Fourqurean, J.W. and L.M. Rutten. 2003. Competing goals of spatial and temporal resolution: monitoring seagrass communities on a regional scale.  Pp 257-288 in: Busch, D. E. and J.C. Trexler, eds.  Monitoring ecosystems: interdisciplinary approaches for evaluating ecoregional initiatives. Island Press, Washington, D. C. 447 pp.

1. Fourqurean, J.W., M.D. Durako, M.O. Hall and L.N. Hefty. 2002.  Seagrass distribution in south Florida: a multi-agency coordinated monitoring program. Pp 497-522 in: Porter, J.W. and K.G. Porter, eds. The Everglades, Florida Bay, and the coral reefs of the Florida Keys.  CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton. 1000pp.